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Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes.

 

Hypertension is the only most relevant risk factor for stroke. Almost the 50 per cent of ischemic strokes and haemorrhagic stroke or brain stroke are caused. The damage that happens through hypertension is often only diagnosed when there is a considerable damage to the body’s blood vessels.

Elevated systolic pressure in those over the age of 60 years and elevated diastolic pressure of younger individuals leads to increase in cardiovascular risk.

•           Kidney artery aneurysm

•           Isolated systolic hypertension

•           Dementia

 

  • Track 2-1Sudden cardiac death in sports
  • Track 2-2Improving ECG interpretation in athletes
  • Track 2-3Personal health
  • Track 2-4Exercise stress testing
  • Track 2-5Circadian rhythm

Interventional cardiology is the branch of cardiology that handles with the specific Cather based techniques to various structural heart diseases, non-surgical procedures for treating cardiovascular diseases. Often, to avoid the need for surgery a thin, flexible tube called catheter is used to repair damaged vessels or other heart structures diseases. In addition, for an acute myocardial infarction the procedure involved in interventional cardiology for acts as a best standard of care. It involves in elimination of clots from coronary arteries and implementation of stents and balloons through a small hole made in a major artery. Coronary intervention will remain the dominant procedure for the Interventional cardiologist, which leads to the development of new procedures in coming decade in proportional to the population growth. It is expected that interventional cardiology craves a new attention in the growth of valvular heart disease intervention.

 

  • Track 3-1Cardiovascular surgery procedures
  • Track 3-2Cardiac catheterization
  • Track 3-3Coronary and valvular intervention
  • Track 3-4Interventional cardiac devices
  • Track 3-5Cardiac hypertrophy

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome generated by decreased blood flow to the coronary artery (set of signs and symptoms) so that part of the heart muscle does not function properly or dies. Chest pain, frequently radiating to the left shoulder or jaw angle, crushing, central, and associated with nausea and sweating, is the most common symptom. Many people , particularly  women, older patients and patients with diabetes mellitus  have symptoms other than chest pain.

Three clinical symptoms, named after the presence of an electrocardiogram (ECG), are usually associated with acute coronary syndrome: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 30%) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, 25%) or unstable angina (38%). There can be many differences as to which types of acute coronary syndrome are known as myocardial infarction ( MI).

 

 

  • Track 4-1Pediatric heart physiology
  • Track 4-2Infant valvular disease
  • Track 4-3Pediatric catheterization
  • Track 4-4Clinical manifestations
  • Track 4-5Pediatric heart transplant

Ischemia is a condition in which the blood flow is reduced in a part of the body. The term used for the heart problems caused by narrowed heart arteries and for decreased blood flow, oxygen to the heart muscle known as Cardiac Ischemia, such that the less blood and oxygen reaches the heart muscle. This is also called coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease which ultimately lead to heart attack. In the other conditions, Ischemia often causes chest pain or discomfort known as angina pectoris.

 

 

  • Track 5-1Parabiosis and gene therapy
  • Track 5-2Cardiac hypertrophy
  • Track 5-3Transgenic techniques in cardiac research
  • Track 5-4Integrins and chemokine receptors in heart physiology

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly detected arrhythmia in clinical practice. Aging populations connected with improved outcomes for many chronic medical conditions has led to increases in AF diagnoses. AF is also known to be associated with an increased risk of adverse events such as transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, and death. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation include advanced age, high blood pressure, underlying heart and lung disease, congenital heart disease, and increased alcohol consumption. Symptoms vary from asymptomatic to symptoms such as chest pain, palpitations, fast heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness, diaphoresis (severe sweating), and generalized fatigue.

  • Track 6-1Kidney artery aneurysm
  • Track 6-2Isolated systolic hypertension
  • Track 6-3Dementia

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the important cause of death in many developed countries and remains one of the major diseases strongly affected by the diet. Nutrition may affect CVD directly by contributing to the accumulation of vascular plaques and indirectly by regulating the rate of aging. Consumption of ultra-processed foods worldwide has increased substantially, studies must show that higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was related with higher risks of cardiovascular, coronary heart, and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent study originate that eating more plant-based foods reduces the risk of heart failure by 40%, while another one found that a vegetarian diet cuts the risk of heart disease death.

  • Atherosclerosis and Hypertension affected by diet
  • Nutrients and their impact on cardiovascular disease
  • Dietary Cholesterol intake
  • Obesity associated with cardiovascular disease
  • Track 7-1Cardiac-gated imaging techniques
  • Track 7-2Myocardial perfusion imaging
  • Track 7-3Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Track 7-4Chest X-ray
  • Track 7-5Three-dimensional echocardiography
  • Track 7-6Angiocardiography

Cardio metabolic health with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, incorporates cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Overweight / obesity, high blood pressure that can be modified by diet and lifestyle decisions are the risk factors. A significant factor in heart disease is obesity. This is a dangerous condition where a person is at elevated risk of heart failure and stroke because their heart does not pump enough blood to meet the needs of their body. By controlling the levels of blood glucose, blood pressure , and blood cholesterol, one can reduce the risk. The same issue can cause stroke and coronary heart disease-atherosclerosis.

• Metabolic derangements associated with obesity

• Cardiac complications of diabetes and obesity

• Endocrinal and Hormonal Obesity

• Metabolic health

 

  • Track 8-1congestive heart failure (CHF)
  • Track 8-2systemic circulation
  • Track 8-3hepatojugular reflux
  • Track 8-4pleural effusion
  • Track 8-5Prognosis
  • Track 8-6Acute decompensation

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly and congenital heart disease, is a defect in the structure of the heart or great vessels that is present at birth. Signs and symptoms depend on the distinct type of defect. Symptoms can differ from none to life-threatening. Symptoms may include rapid breathing, bluish skin (cyanosis), poor weight gain, and feeling tired. A complication of CHD is heart failure.

Pediatric cardiology  is the division of cardiology which involves in the regimen of childhood disorder includes both the heart and lungs problems.  Pediatric cardiology aims in preventing both the congenital and acquired human heart diseases in children, infants and adolescents. Cardiac catheterization technique is also involved in pediatric cardiology

 

Cardiac regeneration is a immense effort that intends to repair the injured heart tissue with cutting-edge science, including cell-free and stem cell therapy. To rejuvenate the damaged  heart tissues and its function by the body naturally some of the reparative tools have been introduced. Patients and providers can be as own finding regenerative solutions that reinstate their own reparative capacity.

 

  • Track 10-1Chronic rapid heart rate
  • Track 10-2Connective tissue disorders
  • Track 10-3Certain infections, especially that inflame the heart
  • Track 10-4Heart tissue damage from heart attack

It is performed by cardiac surgeons of heart. It also incorporate the field of medicine associated in surgical treatment of heart diseases. To treat valvular heart disease from various causes including endocarditisrheumatic heart disease and atherosclerosis. Cardiac Surgery is applied which includes heart transplantation. The most prevalent type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting, in which a healthy artery or vein from the body is connected, or grafted, to a blocked coronary (heart) artery. Traditional way of heart surgery is done by opening the chest wall and then operating the heart. However, later methods of heart surgery includes the insertion of a cardiac devise by making a small cut between the ribs instead of cutting the chest wall or breastwall.

 

 

 

  • Track 11-1Blood clots
  • Track 11-2Chest trauma
  • Track 11-3Cystic fibrosis
  • Track 11-4Emphysema

Cardiomyopathy is a heart disease that affects the heart muscle, which includes some of the major symptoms such as shortness of breath, feel tired, or have swelling of the legs due to heart failure. The different types of cardiomyopathy are  hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy which is also known as broken heart syndrome. 

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is usually inherited in which the heart muscle enlarges and thickens, whereas in dilated cardiomyopathy the weakening and enlargement of ventricles takes place. The cause is frequently unknown. Dilated cardiomyopathy may also result from alcohol, heavy metals, cocaine use and viral infections. In the Restrictive cardiomyopathy, the ventricles get stiffen and may be caused by amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, and some cancer treatments.

  • Chronic rapid heart rate
  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Certain infections, especially that inflame the heart
  • Heart tissue damage from heart attack

 

  • Track 12-1Cardio myocyte proliferation
  • Track 12-2Angiogenesis
  • Track 12-3Transcription
  • Track 12-4Tissue engineering
  • Track 12-5Cardiac regenerative therapy
Vascular biology is the study that involves vascular function, structure, growth & development. This field includes different research, including studies of molecules, cells, organs and intact organisms.  The goals of vascular biology theory is to improve blood flow and perfusion of organs via the identification of new therapeutic targets, development of novel treatment approaches and tissue engineering of synthetic blood vessels and organs.
  • Track 13-1Angiogenic gene therapy
  • Track 13-2Angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitors
  • Track 13-3Oxidative stress and vascular biology
  • Track 13-4Vascular Surgery
  • Track 13-5Vascular Medicine
  • Track 13-6Stem Cell Biology
  • Track 13-7Vascular Imaging and Diagnostic Testing
  • Track 13-8Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology

Sport and exercise cardiology is a branch of medicine related to the exercising individuals and cardiovascular care of athletes which deals with physical fitness and the treatment, prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise by advancing the knowledge through clinical expertise and research.

In short term, the risk of adverse events can be associated with the exercise instead of overcoming the favourable long-term effects on well-being. Various problems can be arise for the cardiologists in evaluating the athletes due to adaptations imposed by exercise.

 

 

  • Track 14-1Open heart surgery
  • Track 14-2Transmyocardial revascularisation
  • Track 14-3Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  • Track 14-4Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)
  • Track 14-5Pace makers
  • Track 14-6Loop recorders

The diagnostic tests are relevant for identifying the heart functions & heart conditions related with healthy or unhealthy persons in cardiology. Cardiac stress testing is used to assess the cardiac function and also to disclose the evidence of cardiac hypoxia. In the areas of perfusion abnormalities, thallium or technetium can be used through Radionuclide test.

With a maximal stress test, the level of exercise gets increases until the person's heart rate will not increase highly. Coronary catheterization, echocardiogram, intravascular ultrasound, and the coronary calcium scan are given as the cardiac imaging techniques which can be used in cardiac diagnosis.

 

 

  • Track 15-1Abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides
  • Track 15-2Sleep apnea
  • Track 15-3Pre-diabetes
  • Track 15-4Benefit of weight loss on cardiovascular health

Echocardiography is referred to as cardiac echo produced by the ultrasound waves which in turn create the images of the heart. This is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-pitched sound waves that are sent through a device called a transducer. The device receives the echoes of the sound waves as they bound with the different parts of your heart. These echoes tend to generate moving pictures of your heart that can be seen on a video screen. It helps to detect cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and many others.

 

 

  • Track 16-1Women with preterm deliveries face Increased heart risk
  • Track 16-2Breathlessness
  • Track 16-3Chest pain

Heart disease is the main killer of women, which counts up to 1 woman per minute by causing 1 in 3 deaths each year. Women have several misconceptions about heart disease in which may lead to put you at risk. Moreover, the other heart diseases, such as coronary micro vascular disease (MVD) and broken heart syndrome, also pose a risk for women.

Symptoms such as dizziness, palpitations and syncope are frequent complaints encountered by family physicians, internists, and cardiologists. In contrast to these ubiquitous complaints which are generally benign, sudden cardiac death remains an important public health concern.

 

  • Track 17-1Adiation Induced heart diseases
  • Track 17-2Cardiac sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma
  • Track 17-3Angiosarcoma, cardiac fibroma
  • Track 17-4Cardiac neoplasm
  • Track 17-5LAMB syndrome, atrial myxoma

Cardio-oncology is that the coronary illness in patients of the World Health Organization is treated for malignant growth. Cardiologists gauge patients for potential danger of creating heart conditions if patients take bound sorts of disease prescription or elective radiation treatment to the chest conditions. Cardiologists conjointly encourage oncologists in patients all through treatment by close perception the guts conditions and perceiving heart trouble from the get-go in treatment.

 

  • Track 18-1Biomarkers
  • Track 18-2Drug- induced cardiac toxicity
  • Track 18-3Novel anti-inflammatory therapies for atherosclerosis

Cardiac nursing is a special nursing field which works with patients who suffer from distinctive conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help treat and care conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, Coronary Artery Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, infarction of myocardium and cardiac arrhythmia under the direction of a cardiologist. Cardiac nurses function post-operative treatment on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring, and health evaluations.

Types of Cardiac Nursing :

 

Advances in medicine means that if Coronary Heart Disease(CHD)  is detected at the initial stage it can be treated successfully to extend survival rate. Successful treatment is more likely if disease is detected at its earliest stages. Our current research work focuses on the early detection of CHD in order to halt or reverse the progress of the disease. The On-going research includes the pioneering the use of the heart scanning in the early diagnosis of heart disease in diabetics and Development of Nuclear Cardiology techniques for the detection of heart disease and Drug development and evaluation of treatments used in heart disease the Identification of novel biological markers to predict the presence of  heart disease and Analysis of ethnic and socio-economic differences in heart disease risk.

  • Track 20-1Cardiac stem cells
  • Track 20-2Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Track 20-3Thrombolytic therapy in stroke
  • Track 20-4Mental stress & the risk of heart disease
  • Track 20-5Cardiac rehabilitation
  • Track 20-6Prosthetic heart valve complications

Cardiology case reports give an appropriate assemblage for all cardiologists by delivering their important clinical cases of late occurrence. Studying from medical cases provides valuable practice for clinicians, students and paramedical staff -members. Rare medical reports and conditions discovered through the latest methods of examination are reinforced. Furthermore, studying diagnostic methods from medical cases and interpretation of symptoms is compelling to train and increase the processes which are being used in the clinical field

 

  • Track 21-1Case reports on arrhythmia
  • Track 21-2Case reports on pericardial disease
  • Track 21-3Sign
  • Track 21-4Symptoms

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, represents the greatest medical challenge in decades. While COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, causing interstitial pneumonitis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it also affects multiple organs, particularly the cardiovascular system. Risk of severe infection and mortality increase with advancing age and male sex. Mortality is increased by comorbidities: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancer. The most common complications include arrhythmia , cardiac injury, fulminant myocarditis, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

 

 

  • Track 22-1Cardiac stress test
  • Track 22-2Cardiac ventriculography
  • Track 22-3Positron emission photography
  • Track 22-4Tilt table test
  • Track 22-5Radionucleide angiography
  • Track 22-6Phonocardiogram
  • Track 22-7Computed tomography angiography